We show that ultrashort pulse strong field multiphoton ionization efficiently produces metastable highly charged molecules such as metastable diatomic trications I 3 + 2 , Br 3 + 2 , and Cl 3 + 2 . The efficiency of stable trication production decreases rapidly with increasing pulse duration. Weak pre- or post-pulse irradiation also prevents efficient production or survival of trications. We propose strong-field femtosecond Raman spectroscopy to determine trication vibrational frequencies.

Physical Review Letters
Ottawa-Carleton Chemistry Institute

Sakai, H. (Hirofumi), Stapelfeldt, H., Constant, E., Ivanov, M.Yu., Matusek, D.R. (Daniel R.), Wright, J.S, & Corkum, P.B. (1998). Metastable triply charged diatomic molecules produced with femtosecond pulses. Physical Review Letters, 81(11), 2217–2220. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.81.2217