This article describes four methods of calculating the replacement correction factor, Prepl (or the product pcav pdis in the IAEA's notation), for a plane-parallel chamber in both electron and photon beams, and for a Farmer chamber in photon beams, by using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. The accuracy of underlying assumptions and relative merits of each technique are assessed. With careful selection of parameters it appears that all four methods give reasonable answers although the direct methods are more intellectually satisfying and more accurate in some cases. The direct methods are shown to have an accuracy of 0.1% when appropriate calculation parameters are selected. The depth dependence of Prepl for the NACP02 plane-parallel chamber has been calculated in both 6 and 18 MeV electron beams. At the reference depth (0.6 R50 -0.1 cm) Prepl is 0.9964 for the 6 MeV beam and 1.0005 for the 18 MeV beam for this well-guarded chamber; at the depth of maximum dose for the 18 MeV beam, Prepl is 1.0010. Prepl is also calculated for the NACP02 chamber and a Farmer chamber (diameter 6 mm) at a depth of 5 cm in a C 60 o photon beam, giving values of 1.0063 and 0.9964, respectively. For the Farmer chamber, Prepl is about half a percent higher than the value (0.992) recommended by the AAPM dosimetry protocol. It is found that the dosimetry protocols may have adopted an incorrect value of Prepl for cylindrical chambers in photon beams. The nonunity values of Prepl for plane-parallel chambers in lower energy electron beams imply a variety of values used in dosimetry protocols must be reassessed.

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Keywords Clinical dosimetry protocols, EGSnrc, Fluence correction, Monte Carlo, Prepl
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Journal Medical Physics
Wang, L.L.W., & Rogers, D.W.O. (2008). Calculation of the replacement correction factors for ion chambers in megavoltage beams by Monte Carlo simulation. Medical Physics, 35(5), 1747–1755. doi:10.1118/1.2898139