This paper describes a novel 3-D model-based tracking algorithm allowing the real-time recovery of 3-D position, orientation, and facial expressions of a moving head. The method uses a 3-D anthropometric muscle-based active appearance model (3-D AMB AAM), a feature-based matching algorithm, and an extended Kalman filter (EKF) pose and expression estimator. Our model is an extension of the classical 2-D AAM and uses a generic 3-D wireframe model of the face based on two sets of controls: the anatomically motivated muscle actuators to model facial expressions and the statistically based anthropometrical controls to model different facial types.

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IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Carleton University

Cordea, M.D. (Marius D.), Petriu, E.M. (Emil M.), & Petriu, D. (2008). Three-dimensional head tracking and facial expression recovery using an anthropometric muscle-based active appearance model. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 57(8), 1578–1588. doi:10.1109/TIM.2008.923784