Identity fraud (IDF) may be defined as unauthorized exploitation of credential information through the use of false identity. We propose CROO, a universal (i.e. generic) infrastructure and protocol to either prevent IDF (by detecting attempts thereof), or limit its consequences (by identifying cases of previously undetected IDF). CROO is a capture resilient one-time password scheme, whereby each user must carry a personal trusted device used to generate one-time passwords (OTPs) verified by online trusted parties. Multiple trusted parties may be used for increased scalability. OTPs can be used regardless of a transaction's purpose (e.g. user authentication or financial payment), associated credentials, and online or on-site nature; this makes CROO a universal scheme. OTPs are not sent in cleartext; they are used as keys to compute MACs of hashed transaction information, in a manner allowing OTP-verifying parties to confirm that given user credentials (i.e. OTP-keyed MACs) correspond to claimed hashed transaction details. Hashing transaction details increases user privacy. Each OTP is generated from a PIN-encrypted non-verifiable key; this makes users' devices resilient to off-line PIN-guessing attacks. CROO's credentials can be formatted as existing user credentials (e.g. credit cards or driver's licenses).

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Nali, D., & Van Oorschot, P. (2008). CROO: A universal infrastructure and protocol to detect identity fraud. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-88313-5-9