This article looks at the nature of ancient loyalty, stressing its external (relationship) as opposed to its internal (emotional) features, and confirms this through an analysis of loyalty within three types of Graeco-Roman patronage-client kingship, manumission, and relationships with philosophical teachers. It then looks at examples of loyalty in the First and Second Testaments, noting the extent to which the former are similar or different from the latter, and makes some observations concerning the vocabulary of biblical loyalty.