Phosphorus diffusion in an infrared conveyor belt furnace is a common method of forming the emitter of wafer-based Si solar cells. Here diffusion was performed using thinner source layers (<65 nm) of higher concentration (>3×1021 P/cm3) than in common practice (thickness > 100 nm, [P] < ∼3×1020 P/cm3). Advantages of thin layers include reduction of chemical emissions and of the time required to etch the layer in HF after diffusion. The emitter profile was controlled by using Design of Experiments techniques. Diffusion profiles were measured by spreading resistance analysis. The measured profiles agreed well with approximations based on four-point probe measurements and TSUPREM-4 software simulations.

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Conference Proceddings of the 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion
Citation
Voyer, C., Tarr, N.G, Thomas, R.E., & Varma, S. (2003). Infrared emitter diffusion using thin and heavily-doped phosphorus source layers. Presented at the Proceddings of the 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion.