Surveys of Australian consumers before, during, and after French nuclear testing in the Pacific in 1995 show clear evidence of negative reaction of consumers to the testing with regards to their ratings of France and French products. Although beliefs about French products did not decline following the announcement of the planned testing, evaluative feelings, and behavioral orientation towards France, the French and French products did. However, by 2005 behavioral orientation to French products, as well as attitudes to France and the French had more than recovered. The components of attitudes to products and country-people are examined in the context of theories of forgiveness to understand processes that could explain such a recovery. Implications for researchers and marketers in the increasingly frequent situations of international tensions are discussed.

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Journal Journal of Consumer Behaviour
Heslop, L.A, Lu, I, & Cray, D. (2009). Australian consumers' attitudes toward France a decade after nuclear testing: Evidence of forgiveness. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 8(4), 192–210. doi:10.1002/cb.283