Chromium ions are frequently found in aquatic ecosystems and are known to be inducers of oxidative stress in fish solid tissues. The present study was designed to determine whether fish blood samples can be used to allow nonlethal diagnostic testing for chromium intoxication. First, we confirmed that 96h exposures to water containing 10.0mgL -1 chromium ions, either Cr 3+ or Cr 6+, induced oxidative stress in brain of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Multiple blood parameters were then evaluated. Cr 6+ exposure triggered a 579% increase in the number of erythrocytes containing micronuclei, a frequently used marker of cellular toxicity. Leucocyte numbers were also perturbed by exposure to either Cr 3+ or Cr 6+ indicating that chromium ions could impair the immune system as well. The content of protein carbonyl groups, a marker of oxidative damage to proteins, was enhanced in fish plasma by exposure to either chromium ion and activities of catalase and lactate dehydrogenase also were affected. The data demonstrate that chromium ions induced oxidative stress in goldfish blood and were cytotoxic for erythrocytes. This indicates that analysis of plasma can be used as a good early nonlethal diagnostic marker of fish intoxication by transition metal ions.

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Keywords Carassius auratus, Catalase, Erythrocytes, Hemoglobin, Lactate dehydrogenase, Plasma
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Journal Chemosphere
Vasylkiv, O.Y. (Olena Yu.), Kubrak, O.I. (Olha I.), Storey, K, & Lushchak, V.I. (Volodymyr I.). (2010). Cytotoxicity of chromium ions may be connected with induction of oxidative stress. Chemosphere, 80(9), 1044–1049. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.05.023