Chapter 17 Sound maps: Music and sound in cybercartography
As cartographic objects and processes are increasingly understood as multimodal in character, sound needs to be conceived as an integral element of any cartographic project. Arguing against simple notions of the sonification of data at the level of form, this essay suggests that a more thoroughgoing strategy of "sound design" needs to be pursued. Properly understood, sound design requires that voices, sounds and music, as well as silence, spatial location, signal processing, and interactivity be considered as part of the overall design process and related to other cartographic elements at the level of structure and theme. Furthermore, sounds need to be considered as not simply formal elements but as cultural objects, replete with meanings and associations. Drawing on the literature of sound in cinema and new media, the chapter builds on previous theories of image-sound relations and explores possibilities for new ways of integrating and manipulating sound within an interactive, multimedia context.