Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) measures the conductivity distribution within an object based on the current applied and voltage measured at surface electrodes. Thus, EIT images are sensitive to electrode properties (i.e. contact impedance, electrode area and boundary shape under the electrode). While some of these electrode properties have been investigated individually, this paper investigates these properties and their interaction using finite element method simulations and the complete electrode model (CEM). The effect of conformal deformations on image reconstruction when using the CEM was of specific interest. Observed artefacts were quantified using a measure that compared an ideal image to the reconstructed image, in this case a no-noise reconstruction that isolated the electrodes' effects. For electrode contact impedance and electrode area, uniform reductions to all electrodes resulted in ringing artefacts in the reconstructed images when the CEM was used, while parameter variations that were not correlated amongst electrodes resulted in artefacts distributed throughout the image. When the boundary shape changed under the electrode, as with non-symmetric conformal deformations, using the CEM resulted in structured distortions within the reconstructed image. Mean electrode contact impedance increases, independent of inter-electrode variation, did not result in artefacts in the reconstructed image.

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Physiological Measurement
Department of Systems and Computer Engineering

Boyle, A. (Alistair), & Adler, A. (2011). The impact of electrode area, contact impedance and boundary shape on EIT images. In Physiological Measurement (Vol. 32, pp. 745–754). doi:10.1088/0967-3334/32/7/S02