In this paper, we first survey cross-layer architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs). Afterwards, we propose a novel cross-layer architecture for QoS provisioning in clustered and multi-hop based WMSNs. The proposed architecture provides support for multiple network-based applications on a single sensor node. For supporting multiple applications on a single node, an area in memory is reserved where each application can store its network protocols settings. Furthermore, the proposed cross-layer architecture supports heterogeneous flows by classifying WMSN traffic into six traffic classes. The architecture incorporates a service differentiation module for QoS provisioning in WMSNs. The service differentiation module defines the forwarding behavior corresponding to each traffic class. The forwarding behavior is primarily determined by the priority of the traffic class, moreover the service differentiation module allocates bandwidth to each traffic class with goals to maximize network utilization and avoid starvation of low priority flows. The proposal incorporates the congestion detection and control algorithm. Upon detection of congestion, the congested node makes an estimate of the data rate that should be used by the node itself and its one-hop away upstream nodes. While estimating the data rate, the congested node considers the characteristics of different traffic classes along with their total bandwidth usage. The architecture uses a shared database to enable cross-layer interactions. Application's network protocol settings and the interaction with the shared database is done through a cross-layer optimization middleware.

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Keywords Cross- layer architecture, QoS, Service differentiation, Wireless multimedia sensor networks, WSN
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Journal KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems
Farooq, M.O. (Muhammad Omer), St-Hilaire, M, & Kunz, T. (2012). Cross-layer architecture for QoS provisioning in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks. KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems, 6(1), 178–202. doi:10.3837/tiis.2012.01.011