Trade in genetically modified (GM) products remains a major issue in international trade. In 1999, the EU imposed a temporary import ban on genetically modified organisms. In the wake of aWorldTrade Organization (WTO) case brought by the US and Canada against the import ban - which the EU lost - the EU put in place a new regulatory regime for GM products. As of March 2012, the operation of this new import regime has not been formally assessed.The first GM-crops are just now working their way through the post-moratorium regulatory system and an assessment of the operation of the regime is timely.The results of this assessment suggest that the EU's approval system is only partially based in science and thus, the potential for political interference remains. Hence, the new EU regulatory regime for GM products makes investments in trade related activities pertaining to GM products very risky.

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Journal Journal of World Trade
Viju, C, Yeung, M.T. (May T.), & Kerr, W.A. (William A.). (2012). The trade implications of the post-moratorium European union approval system for genetically modified organisms. Journal of World Trade, 46(5), 1207–1238.