This chapter examines the effectiveness of ERP systems in implementing internal controls in global organizations, particularly controls required by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (U.S. Congress, 2002), or SOX. It aims to understand the extent to which ERP systems are able to meet these requirements and challenges organizations face in enhancing their ERP systems for this purpose. The chapter reports the results of interviews with ERP systems managers and directors in four organizations with significant global operations. It reveals a substantial degree of completion of SOX requirements by these organizations, often facilitated by consultants, and often accomplished as part of broader systems, processes, and strategic management improvement initiatives. It also highlights some significant technical and cultural implementation challenges, such as systems inflexibility and diversity, systems security weaknesses, and resistance to change, as well as some benefits upon completion, such as improved process efficiency and systems security, and potential intangible long-term benefits.