Optical fiber gratings have developed into a mature technology with a wide range of applications in various areas, including physical sensing for temperature, strain, acoustic waves and pressure. All of these applications rely on the perturbation of the period or refractive index of a grating inscribed in the fiber core as a transducing mechanism between a quantity to be measured and the optical spectral response of the fiber grating. This paper presents a relatively recent variant of the fiber grating concept, whereby a small tilt of the grating fringes causes coupling of the optical power from the core mode into a multitude of cladding modes, each with its own wavevector and mode field shape. The main consequence of doing so is that the differential response of the modes can then be used to multiply the sensing modalities available for a single fiber grating and also to increase the sensor resolution by taking advantage of the large amount of data available. In particular, the temperature cross-sensitivity and power source fluctuation noise inherent in all fiber grating designs can be completely eliminated by referencing all the spectral measurements to the wavelength and power level of the core mode back-reflection. The mode resonances have a quality factor of 105, and they can be observed in reflection or transmission. A thorough review of experimental and theoretical results will show that tilted fiber Bragg gratings can be used for high resolution refractometry, surface plasmon resonance applications, and multiparameter physical sensing (strain, vibration, curvature, and temperature).

Additional Metadata
Keywords Cladding modes, Fiber Bragg gratings, Optical fiber sensors, Refractometry, Strain, Surface plasmons, Tilted gratings, Vibration
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1002/lpor.201100039
Journal Laser and Photonics Reviews
Citation
Albert, J, Shao, L.-Y, & Caucheteur, C. (Christophe). (2013). Tilted fiber Bragg grating sensors. Laser and Photonics Reviews, 7(1), 83–108. doi:10.1002/lpor.201100039