Given the diverse operating conditions, weather conditions, space users, and occupant preferences of buildings, it is commonplace to provide occupants with multiple means to adapt their immediate indoor environment. However, numerous studies have shown that occupants sub-optimally use such controls to improve comfort during times of significant discomfort, but are much more passive when the source of discomfort is alleviated. Occupant-related building performance simulation (BPS) models continue to use very simple and rigid rules when a building's performance is predicted, despite the topic's complexity. This is likely an artifact of envelope load-dominated buildings, whose energy use is mostly dependent on their ability to isolate the indoor environment. But as envelopes and HVAC become more efficient, occupants are playing an increasingly important role on building performance; especially for highly efficient building (e.g., net-zero energy buildings). Traditionally the associated uncertainty of these effects has been excused for the designer and isolated during design by focusing on energy performance relative to a reference building. This paper proposes a method using a combination of probabilistic occupant models and explicit models of adaptive comfort to gain an improved understanding of robust building design. Results of an example of yield 45% lighting energy savings if a fixed shading device is present.

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Keywords Building performance simulation, Occupant behaviour, Occupant comfort, Robust building design, Stochastic occupant modelling
Conference 4th Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, SimAUD 2013, Part of the 2013 Spring Simulation Multiconference, SpringSim 2013
Citation
O'Brien, W. (2013). Evaluating the performance robustness of fixed and movable shading devices against diverse occupant behaviors. Presented at the 4th Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design, SimAUD 2013, Part of the 2013 Spring Simulation Multiconference, SpringSim 2013.