Past research suggests that people identify with positively evaluated groups. However, some in-groups may be evaluated highly yet identification may be hampered by social norms prohibiting in-group pride. Social norms may stem in part from in-group history. In Study 1, Germans rated their nation more highly on quality-of-life dimensions, yet identified with their country less than Americans. Social norms about the perceived appropriateness of in-group pride mediated differences in cross-national identification (Study 2). Moreover, people high in conformity were most strongly influenced by social norms about national pride. One antecedent of national pride norms was the perceived in-group's history: Focus on positive historical events increased the perception of national identification as appropriate, compared to a focus on negative historical events (Study 3).

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Keywords Historical events, National groups, Self, Social identity, Social norms
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Journal Self and Identity
Peetz, J, & Wilson, A.E. (Anne E.). (2013). Waving the Flag (or Not): Consequences and Antecedents of Social Norms About In-group Identification. Self and Identity, 12(4), 447–466. doi:10.1080/15298868.2012.698059