Using directional antennae in forming a wireless sensor network has many advantages over omnidirectional, including improved energy efficiency, reduced interference, increased security, and improved routing efficiency. We propose using double (Yagi) directional antennae in 3D space: for a given spherical angle such antennae transmit from their apex simultaneously directionally along two diametrically opposing cones in 3D. We study the resulting network formed by such directional sensors. We design a new algorithm to address strong connectivity of the resulting network and compare its hop-stretch factor with the three-dimensional omnidirectional model. We also obtain a lower bound on the minimum range required to ensure strong connectivity for sensors with double antennae. Further, we present simulation results comparing the diameter of a traditional sensor network using omnidirectional and one using directional antennae.

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Keywords Antennae, Diameter, Directional, Range, Sensor Network, Stretch Factor, Strong Connectivity, Yagi Antenna
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Kranakis, E, MacQuarrie, F. (Fraser), Travizani Maffra, I.K. (Izabela Karennina), & Morales Ponce, O. (Oscar). (2013). Strong connectivity of wireless sensor networks with double directional antennae in 3D. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-39247-4_22