Private market-based regulations are becoming prevalent features of governance across economic sectors. From programs, such as the F orest Stewardship Council, that set rules for m anagement practices in forests to the e -Stewards programs that addresses the recycling of electronic waste, a diverse range of private regulatory initiatives have potential significance for land use around the world. This chapter examines how these private regulators contribute to problem-oriented attention in land-use governance. To make sense of the complex array of private regulators, the chapter reviews the variation in their characteristics. From this descriptive foundation, it assesses what we know about the construction, evolution, and consequences of these initiatives on micro, meso, and macro levels, and assesses, in a preliminary way, how various private regulators may affect pressures on land use. The chapter closes by discussing three key problems that are presented by an incomplete field of private regulators. One is the mismatch between the scale and rate of the processes of land use and the scale and rate at which private regulations are being adopted and exerting influence over land-use practices. A second challenge is the spatial mismatch between where private regulations have gained the greatest inroads and where the greatest land-use practice concerns reside. A third challenge is the problem and importance of institutional fit. Land-use governance is an encompassing field that extends well beyond the policy focus of any given private regulator. Hence, for private regulation to attend to this challenge, coordination and cooperation will be necessary to address influences on the land that are at the intersections of economic sectors and stages of global supply chains.

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Auld, G. (2014). Private market-based regulations: What they are, and what they mean for land-use governance.