The paper develops the concepts of development impeding institutions and exclusive development, and examines their interrelationship. Haiti is used as a case study to illustrate how the two can interact to form a "trap" in which exploitive institutions and severe inequities become mutually reinforcing. The implications of this institutional approach provide a strong justification for development policies which target institutional reform and empoiverment jointly.

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Journal Canadian Journal of Development Studies
Grafton, R.Q. (R. Quentin), & Rowlands, D. (1996). Development impeding institutions : The political economy of Haiti. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 17(2), 260–277.