We establish linkages between sources of NOx emissions and two types of national ozone metrics in Canada and the U.S. using the adjoint of an air quality model. We define an attainment-based metric using probabilistic design values (PDVs) exceeding 65 ppb to represent polluted regions and define an exposure-based metric as the premature mortality count related to short-term ozone exposure, both in Canada and the U.S. Our results reveal differences in both temporally averaged and day-specific influences of NOx emission controls across source locations. We find NOx emission reductions in California and the eastern U.S. to be most effective for reducing attainment- and exposure-based metrics, amounting to a total reduction of 6500 ppb in PDVs and 613 deaths/season nationally from a 10% reduction in NOx emissions from those source locations. While source controls in the remainder of the western U.S. are beneficial at reducing nonattainment, these reductions are less influential on ozone mortality. We also find that while exposure-based metrics are sensitive to daily emission reductions, much of the reduction in PDVs arises from controlling emissions on only a fraction of simulation days. We further illustrate the dependency of adjoint estimates of emission influences on the choice of averaging period as a follow-up to previous work.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1021/es4024145
Journal Environmental Science and Technology
Pappin, A.J. (Amanda J.), & Hakami, A. (2013). Attainment vs exposure: Ozone metric responses to source-specific NO x controls using adjoint sensitivity analysis. Environmental Science and Technology, 47(23), 13519–13527. doi:10.1021/es4024145