Temperature adaptation is a much neglected field in the minds of climate change researchers and policy makers. However, increasing fluctuations in temperature mean that the risk of cold and heat stress will pose an increasing threat to both wild and cultivated plants and animals, with frost injury expected to cause devastating damage to crops on an increasingly large scale. Thus, improving shared knowledge of the biological mechanisms of temperature adaptation in plants and animals will help prevent major losses of crops and genetic resources in the future. This book is the first to focus on the mechanistic similarities between species in their responses to temperature in a multi-organism approach that addresses the challenges and impacts of climate change on temperature adaptation in micro-organisms (including pathogens), invertebrates, economically and scientifically important plants and vertebrates in both terrestrial and marine environments. The book concludes with a focus on the interactions between organisms, exploring common mechanisms in temperature adaptation.