Purpose: To investigate the effects of the composition and geometry of ocular media and tissues surrounding the eye on dose distributions for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy with125I, 103Pd, or 131Cs seeds, and to investigate doses to ocular structures. Methods: An anatomically and compositionally realistic voxelized eye model with a medial tumor is developed based on a literature review. Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients for ocular media are calculated. Radiation transport and dose deposition are simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo user-code BrachyDose for a fully loaded COMS eye plaque within a water phantom and our full eye model for the three radionuclides. A TG-43 simulation with the same seed configuration in a water phantom neglecting the plaque and interseed effects is also performed. The impact on dose distributions of varying tumor position, as well as tumor and surrounding tissue media is investigated. Each simulation and radionuclide is compared using isodose contours, dose volume histograms for the lens and tumor, maximum, minimum, and average doses to structures of interest, and doses to voxels of interest within the eye. Results: Mass energy absorption and attenuation coefficients of the ocular media differ from those of water by as much as 12% within the 20-30 keV photon energy range. For all radionuclides studied, average doses to the tumor and lens regions in the full eye model differ from those for the plaque in water by 8%-10% and 13%-14%, respectively; the average doses to the tumor and lens regions differ between the full eye model and the TG-43 simulation by 2%-17% and 29%-34%, respectively. Replacing the surrounding tissues in the eye model with water increases the maximum and average doses to the lens by 2% and 3%, respectively. Substituting the tumor medium in the eye model for water, soft tissue, or an alternate melanoma composition affects tumor dose compared to the default eye model simulation by up to 16%. In the full eye model simulations, the average dose to the lens is larger by 7%-9% than the dose to the center of the lens, and the maximum dose to the optic nerve is 17%-22% higher than the dose to the optic disk for all radionuclides. In general, when normalized to the same prescription dose at the tumor apex, doses delivered to all structures of interest in the full eye model are lowest for103Pd and highest for 131Cs, except for the tumor where the average dose is highest for 103Pd and lowest for 131Cs. Conclusions: The eye is not radiologically water-equivalent, as doses from simulations of the plaque in the full eye model differ considerably from doses for the plaque in a water phantom and from simulated TG-43 calculated doses. This demonstrates the importance of model-based dose calculations for eye plaque brachytherapy, for which accurate elemental compositions of ocular media are necessary.

Additional Metadata
Keywords BrachyDose, choroidal melanoma, COMS, dose calculation, EGSnrc, eye plaque, Monte
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1118/1.4861715
Journal Medical Physics
Lesperance, M. (Marielle), Inglis-Whalen, M., & Thomson, R.M. (2014). Model-based dose calculations for COMS eye plaque brachytherapy using an anatomically realistic eye phantom. Medical Physics, 41(2). doi:10.1118/1.4861715