This study investigated the effects of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on free radical-related processes in tissues of goldfish given 96. h exposures to 1, 10 or 100. mg/L of 2,4-D as well as 96. h recovery from the 100. mg/L treatment. In liver, 2,4-D exposure increased levels of protein carbonyls and lipid peroxides by 36-53% and 24-43%, respectively, but both parameters reverted during recovery, whereas in brain glutathione status improved in response to 2,4-D. Lipid peroxide content in kidney was enhanced by 40-43% after exposure to 2,4-D with a decrease during recovery. Exposure to 2,4-D also reduced liver acetylcholinesterase activity by 31-41%. The treatment increased catalase activity in brain, but returned it to initial levels after recovery. In kidney, exposure to 100. mg/L of 2,4-D caused a 33% decrease of superoxide dismutase activity. Thus, goldfish exposure to 2,4-D induced moderate oxidative stress in liver and kidney and mild oxidative stress in brain.

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Keywords 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Antioxidant enzymes, Carassius auratus, Lipid peroxides, Oxidative stress, Protein carbonyls
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Journal Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Matviishyn, T.M. (Tetiana M.), Kubrak, O.I. (Olga I.), Husak, V.V. (Viktor V.), Storey, K, & Lushchak, V.I. (Volodymyr I.). (2014). Tissue-specific induction of oxidative stress in goldfish by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid: Mild in brain and moderate in liver and kidney. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 37(2), 861–869. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2014.02.007