The Ottawa Treaty banning antipersonnel landmines (also known as the Mine Ban Treaty) has been signed and ratified by all but a few European states. Some of these countries were significant former producers and users of antipersonnel landmines (APLs), a fact that reveals the considerable importance of Europe to the entire process. The role of smaller states in the Ottawa Process as agenda setters and facilitators has been well documented, and again in this regard European states such as Austria and Norway were crucial.1 On March 1,1999, the treaty entered into international law after Burkina Faso became the fortieth state to ratify it, and today over 140 countries are a party. However, the nonsignature of the United States and Russia has not only created cause for concern among European states but also produced tangible political and military dilemmas in which the matter of APLs converges with many wider issues in the context of the post-Cold War European security architecture.

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Chamberlain, P. (Paul), & Long, D. (2004). Europe and the Ottawa treaty: Compliance with exceptions and loopholes.