Foot-shock, which ordinarily reduced locomotor activity in mice, enhanced the locomotor excitation produced by d-amphetamine. Moreover, the extent of the foot-shock excitation became progressively more pronounced with successive shock presentations. Although a competitive relationship was demonstrated between the temporal changes in amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and stereotypy. the occurrence of the post-shock excitation was independent of these behaviors. Reduction of norepinephrine and dopamine by pretreatment with α-MpT antagonized the amphetamine effects on all three behaviors. In contrast, reduction of norepinephrine by FLA-63 had no effect on locomotor activity, increased stereotypy to a limited extent, and produced a small but significant decline in the post-shock excitation. Finally, the effects of chronic amphetamine administration on the post-shock excitation paralleled the effects produced by FLA-63, and appeared to be independent of changes in general locomotor activity and stereotypy following chronic exposure to the drug. Results were discussed in terms of the role of norepinephrine and dopamine in mediating these behaviors.

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Keywords d-amphetamine, dopamine, foot-shock, norepinephrine, stereotypy locomotor activity, tolerance
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Journal Neuropharmacology
Kokkinidis, L., Irwin, j. (jill), & Anisman, H. (1979). Shock-induced locomotor excitation following acute and chronic amphetamine treatment. Neuropharmacology, 18(1), 13–22. doi:10.1016/0028-3908(79)90004-2