Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from the skeletal muscle of euthermic and torpid Ictidomys tridecemlineatus was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a novel method involving Blue-agarose and Phenyl-agarose chromatography. Kinetic analysis of the enzymes isolated from the two conditions suggested the existence of two structurally distinct proteins, with GAPDH Vmax being 40-60% less for the enzyme from the torpid condition (in both glycolytic and gluconeogenic directions) as compared to the euthermic enzyme form. Thermal denaturation, in part determined by differential scanning fluorimetry, revealed that purified GAPDH from the torpid animals was significantly more stable that the enzyme from the euthermic condition. Mass spectrometry combined withWestern blot analyses of purified GAPDH indicate that the cellular GAPDH population is extensively modified, with posttranslational phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation being detected. Global reduction in GAPDH tyrosine phosphorylation during torpor as well as site specific alterations in methylation sites suggests that that the stable changes observed in kinetic and structural GAPDH properties may be due to posttranslational modification of this enzyme during torpor. Taken together, these results suggest a stable suppression of GAPDH (possibly by some reversible posttranslational modification) during ground squirrel torpor, which likely contributes to the overall reduction in carbohydrate metabolism when these animals switch to lipid fuels during dormancy.

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Keywords Differential scanning fluorimetry, Mass spectrometry, Methylation, Phosphorylation, Posttranslational modification, Torpor
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Journal PeerJ
Bell, R.A. (Ryan A.V.), Smith, J.C. (Jeffrey C.), & Storey, K. (2014). Purification and properties of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase fromthe skeletalmuscle of the hibernating ground squirrel, ictidomys tridecemlineatus. PeerJ, 2014(1). doi:10.7717/peerj.634