Background In children, there is limited information regarding the relative contribution of left ventricular (LV) apical and basal rotation to increase LV pump function with exercise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a progressive increase in LV pump function with exercise is related to increased LV apical and basal rotation.Methods Forty-two subjects 12 to 18 years of age with normal cardiac structure and function were recruited prospectively and imaged at rest, and in 20 subjects, imaging was repeated after moderate exercise. Conventional measures of LV systolic and diastolic performance were evaluated. Left ventricular rotation, LV twist, rotational rate, and recoil and untwist rates were measured using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography. Torsion was calculated by normalizing LV twist to LV diastolic length. Twist displacement loops were constructed from data obtained at rest and after exercise.Results Apical rotation increased significantly after exercise (7.33 ± 2.8° vs 11.6 ± 4.7°, P =.0004), but basal rotation did not (-4.85 ± 1.9 vs -6.46 ± 4.81, P =.21). Similarly, peak twist, torsion, and twist rate also increased significantly after exercise. In diastole, apical recoil rate and LV untwist rate also increased significantly with exercise. The slope of the systolic limb of the twist displacement loop and the area enclosed by the loop also increased significantly with exercise.Conclusions Increases in global LV pump function during exercise in children are associated with enhanced LV apical rotation but not LV basal rotation. In addition, unique changes were seen in twist displacement loops in children before and after exercise. These data may serve as a foundation for understanding future applications of LV rotational mechanics in disease states.

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Keywords Exercise, Left ventricular mechanics, Torsion
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Journal Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Di Maria, M.V. (Michael V.), Caracciolo, G. (Giuseppe), Prashker, S, Sengupta, P.P. (Partho P.), & Banerjee, A. (Anirban). (2014). Left ventricular rotational mechanics before and after exercise in children. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 27(12), 1336–1343. doi:10.1016/j.echo.2014.07.016