Sexual reproduction requires coordinated contributions from both sexes to proceed efficiently. However, the reproductive strategies that the sexes adopt often have the potential to give rise to sexual conflict because they can result in divergent, sex-specific costs and benefits. These conflicts can occur at many levels, from molecular to behavioral. Here, we consider sexual conflict mediated through the actions of seminal fluid proteins. These proteins provide many excellent examples in which to trace the operation of sexual conflict from molecules through to behavior. Seminal fluid proteins are made by males and provided to females during mating. As agents that can modulate egg production at several steps, as well as reproductive behavior, sperm "management," and female feeding, activity, and longevity, the actions of seminal proteins are prime targets for sexual conflict. We review these actions in the context of sexual conflict. We discuss genomic signatures in seminal protein (and related) genes that are consistent with current or previous sexual conflict. Finally, we note promising areas for future study and highlight real-world practical situations that will benefit from understanding the nature of sexual conflicts mediated by seminal proteins.

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Journal Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Sirot, L.K. (Laura K.), Wong, A, Chapman, T. (Tracey), & Wolfner, M.F. (Mariana F.). (2015). Sexual conflict and seminal fluid proteins: A dynamic landscape of sexual interactions. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 7(2). doi:101101/cshperspect.a017533