Chemical vapor deposition of anisotropic ultrathin gold films on optical fibers: Real-time sensing by tilted fiber Bragg gratings and use of a dielectric pre-coating
Tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) are refractometry-based sensor platforms that have been employed herein as devices for the real-time monitoring of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) in the near-infrared range (NIR). The core-guided light launched within the TFBG core is back-reflected off a gold mirror sputtered onto the fiber-end and is scattered out into the cladding where it can interact with a nucleating thin film. Evanescent fields of the growing gold nanostructures behave differently depending on the polarization state of the core-guided light interrogating the growing film, therefore the resulting spectral profile is typically decomposed into two separate peak families for the orthogonal S- and P-polarizations. Wavelength shifts and attenuation profiles generated from gold films in the thickness regime of 5-100 nm are typically degenerate for deposition directly onto the TFBG. However, a polarization-dependence can be imposed by adding a thin dielectric pre-coating onto the TFBG prior to using the device for CVD monitoring of the ultrathin gold films. It is found that addition of the pre-coating enhances the sensitivity of the P-polarized peak family to the deposition of ultrathin gold films and renders the films optically anisotropic. It is shown herein that addition of the metal oxide coating can increase the peak-to-peak wavelength separation between orthogonal polarization modes as well as allow for easy resonance tracking during deposition. This is also the first reporting of anisotropic gold films generated from this particular gold precursor and CVD process. Using an ensemble of x-ray techniques, the local fine structure of the gold films deposited directly on the TFBG is compared to gold films of similar thicknesses deposited on the Al2O3 pre-coated TFBG and witness slides.
|Keywords||Atomic layer deposition, Chemical vapor deposition, Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, Noble metals, Optical fibers, Sensors, Synchrotron radiation, Tilted fiber Bragg gratings|
|Conference||Photonics North 2014|
Mandia, D.J. (David J.), Zhou, W, Ward, M.J. (Matthew J.), Joress, H. (Howie), Giorgi, J.B. (Javier B.), Gordon, P. (Peter), … Barry, S.T. (2014). Chemical vapor deposition of anisotropic ultrathin gold films on optical fibers: Real-time sensing by tilted fiber Bragg gratings and use of a dielectric pre-coating. Presented at the Photonics North 2014. doi:10.1117/12.2075136