The highly structured (64% GC) covalently closed circular (CCC) RNA (220 nt) of the virusoid associated with rice yellow mottle virus codes for a 16-kDa highly basic protein using novel modalities for coding, translation, and gene expression. This CCC RNA is the smallest among all known viroids and virusoids and the only one that codes proteins. Its sequence possesses an internal ribosome entry site and is directly translated through two (or three) completely overlapping ORFs (shifting to a new reading frame at the end of each round). The initiation and termination codons overlap UGAUGA (underline highlights the initiation codon AUG within the combined initiation-Termination sequence). Termination codons can be ignored to obtain larger read-Through proteins. This circular RNA with no noncoding sequences is a unique natural supercompact "nanogenome.".

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1402814111
Journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Citation
AbouHaidar, M.G. (Mounir Georges), Venkataraman, S. (Srividhya), Golshani, A, Liu, B. (Bolin), & Ahmad, T. (Tauqeer). (2014). Novel coding, translation, and gene expression of a replicating covalently closed circular RNA of 220 nt. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(40), 14542–14547. doi:10.1073/pnas.1402814111