Methodologies and uncertainties for measuring black carbon and NOx from lab-scale and in situ upstream oil and gas flares
Black carbon and NO<inf>x</inf> from a laboratory-scale flare tip burning a gas mixture representative of solution gas flares typical of the Alberta upstream oil and gas industry were measured. A new and robust method for calculation of carbon conversion efficiency and species emission rates was developed for use in ongoing flare tests and possible field measurements on in situ flares. Fuel flow rates ranged from 30 to 268 standard L/min with exit velocities ranging from 0.25 to 2.5 m/sec. In general, combustion efficiency increased with fuel flow rate while soot production decreased. Soot was at a maximum of 0.1% of fuel carbon mass for the fuel flow rates tested. Uncertainties on combustion efficiency and species production rates were strongly dependent on dilution ratio making dilution of the combustion products with ambient air an important factor for planning in situ measurements. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the AWMA's 107th Annual Conference & Exhibition (Long Beach, CA 6/24-27/2014).
Corbin, D.J. (Darcy J.), & Johnson, M.R. (2014). Methodologies and uncertainties for measuring black carbon and NOx from lab-scale and in situ upstream oil and gas flares.