The protective effects of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) are described that aid fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to resist sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and hydrogen peroxide toxicity. Food supplementation with 10mM AKG alleviated toxic effects of 1mM SNP added to food and improved fly development. Dietary AKG also prevented the increase in levels of oxidative stress markers seen in SNP-reared adult flies. In vitro AKG did not affect the rate of SNP decomposition and did not bind iron and nitrite ions released in this process. Alpha-ketoglutarate also displayed high H2O2-scavenging activity in vitro and efficiently protected adult flies against this compound in combined treatments. Based on the observed antioxidant activity of AKG, it may be suggested that the antioxidant mode of AKG action (apart from its cyanide-binding capability) may be used to prevent the toxic effects of SNP and improve general physiological state of D. melanogaster and other animals and humans.

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Keywords Antioxidant, Cyanide, Fruit fly, Oxidative stress, Pupation, Survival
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Journal Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Bayliak, M.M. (Maria M.), Shmihel, H.V. (Halyna V.), Lylyk, M.P. (Maria P.), Vytvytska, O.M. (Oksana M.), Storey, J, Storey, K, & Lushchak, V.I. (Volodymyr I.). (2015). Alpha-ketoglutarate attenuates toxic effects of sodium nitroprusside and hydrogen peroxide in Drosophila melanogaster. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 40(2), 650–659. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2015.08.016