Oil and phenolics were extracted from Descurainia sophia (Sophia) seeds by a supercritical CO<inf>2</inf> system. Extractions were conducted in two sequential steps, first using 100 % CO<inf>2</inf> and then adding 10 % ethanol as co-solvent. The extracts were collected in each step using two separate collectors operating at different pressures. The extraction run was 3 and 4 h for the first period, and 2 h for the second period. The majority of the oil was collected in the first extraction period while phenolic compounds were obtained in the second extraction period. A combined mode of static/dynamic extraction (3 h running and 1 h soaking in CO<inf>2</inf>) was also used in the first extraction period, which enhanced the total extraction yield (29.3 ± 0.5 %) and was comparable to the 4 h extraction yield (31.4 ± 0.1 %). The total fatty acid (FA) content of oil in collector 1 (0.94 g) was nearly twice that in collector 2 (0.60 g). The oil contained 14 FAs with α-linolenic being predominant (48.5 %), with a total 91.1 % unsaturated FAs, a ω3/ω6 ratio of 2.7, and an erucic acid content of 6.2 %. More than 10 phenolic compounds were detected by HPLC in the Sophia seed extracts of which sinapic acid was the dominant compound. Sophia seed extracts showed high levels of antioxidant activity. These results suggest that Sophia seed oil and phenolics have the potential for functional food and pharmaceutical applications.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Descurainia sophia seed, Fatty acid profile, Phenolic composition, Supercritical fluid extraction
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-015-2693-5
Journal JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society
Citation
Hadinezhad, M. (Mehri), Rowland, O, & Hosseinian, F. (2015). The Fatty Acid Profile and Phenolic Composition of Descurainia sophia Seeds Extracted by Supercritical CO2. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 92(9), 1379–1390. doi:10.1007/s11746-015-2693-5