Doing gender equality policy work increasingly involves measurement, whether through the gathering and analysis of data on gender inequality, or the reporting and accounting for gender programming outcomes and outputs. This introduction to a special issue on gender and the measurement imperative outlines some of the main strands in the emerging critical literature on measurement, highlighting two main themes: measurement and social construction-the ways in which regimes of measure both constitute social reality and are themselves sites of social contestation-and the governing effects of measurement regimes. I explore below some of the gendered dynamics of the social dimensions of measurement, which are the subject of feminist inquiry and/or are topics on which more research is needed.