Shield to rejuvenated stage volcanism on Kauai and Niihau, Hawaiian Islands
We report and interpret new geochemical and Pb-Sr-Nd isotopic data from 325 samples of shield, late-shield, postshield, and rejuvenated stage lavas from Kauai and Niihau, the two most northwesterly islands in the Hawaiian island chain. Kauai is unique in the Hawaiian chain in that it exhibits a near-continuous geochemical transition from shield to postshield to rejuvenated stage volcanism between 4.4 and 3.6Ma and has been continuously active over ~6 Myr. From c. 5.7 to 4.3 Ma, the shield stage of both islands produced tholeiitic basalts typical of other Hawaiian shield volcanoes. The Niihau basalts are more evolved and have high Gd/Yb compared with Kauai, indicating a higher residual garnet content in the source. Both Kauai and Niihau shield basalts have Kea-like trace element ratios, but isotopic ratios are transitional between Kea- and Loa-like compositions. The geochemical similarity of the two shields indicates that mantle sources in different regions of the plume source were similar, and that the <2Ma Loa and Kea trends of the southeastern Hawaiian volcanoes are not observed. More Loa-like compositions are evident in shield lavas from eastern Kauai, where the enhanced Loa composition may reflect melting of low-melting temperature plume components as the island migrates off the hotter, more Kea-like, center of the Hawaiian plume. Postshield lavas and intrusive rocks on both islands are rare: Kauai includes alkalic basalts, hawaiites and mugearites that are isotopically homogeneous and include a significant depleted mantle component compared with the shield basalts, whereas the Niihau late-shield and postshield rocks consist of highly contrasting transitional tholeiites or basanites with variable but shield-like isotopic compositions. The Niihau postshield rocks represent variable, but lower degrees of melting of the shield mantle source. Large volumes of rejuvenated stage lavas cover both islands and also form submarine cone fields, but lava compositions are different. On Kauai, rejuvenated lavas range from melilitite to alkalic basalt with trace element, Nd isotope, and Pb isotope ratios that vary as a function of Th and SiO<inf>2</inf> content. Low-degree (high-Th) melts are dominated by a mixed Kea-Loihi component and high-degree (low-Th) melts include more of a depleted rejuvenated component (DRC) typified by rejuvenated stage lavas and xenoliths from nearby Kaula Island. With the exception of a single basanite, the Niihau rejuvenated stage lavas are uniformly alkalic basalt, with Sr and Ba excesses combined with depleted Th and Nb abundances relative to the light rare earth elements. Rejuvenated stage alkalic basalts from both islands are dominated by contributions from the DRC, which have high Sr/Ce and <sup>87</sup>Sr/<sup>86</sup>Sr but low <sup>206</sup>Pb/<sup>204</sup>Pb. The Sr-rich, possibly carbonatebearing, DRC component may be distributed patchily in the rejuvenated stage mantle source such that, where present, the degree of partial melting was enhanced compared with the degree of partial melting of the Sr-poor, mixed Kea-Loihi component. Given the lack of a hiatus between postshield and rejuvenated stages on Kauai, the rejuvenated mantle source is already able to melt at the tail end of shield stage activity and no secondary melting mechanism is required to explain the rejuvenated stage.
|Keywords||Hawai'i, Magma evolution, Mantle sources, Sr component, Stages|
|Journal||Journal of Petrology|
Cousens, B, & Clague, D.A. (David A.). (2014). Shield to rejuvenated stage volcanism on Kauai and Niihau, Hawaiian Islands. Journal of Petrology, 56(8), 1547–1584. doi:10.1093/petrology/egv045