The Day/Night Stroop is a widely used measure of inhibitory control with preschoolers that requires them to respond 'day' to a picture of a moon and 'night' to a picture of a sun (Gerstadt, Hong, & Diamond, 1994). However, we argue that the nature of the relation between the stimuli and required responses requires more than inhibitory control. In the present study we compared 51 three- to five-year-olds' performance on the Day/Night and the Black/White Stroop alongside other measures of Executive Function and language. As predicted, we found that children make inhibitory errors on the Black/White, while they make both inhibitory and memory errors on the Day/Night. As a result, the Day/Night Stroop underestimates the inhibitory control abilities of some children. Further, we also found that performance on the Black/White task was strongly related to performance on another inhibitory control task, while performance on the Day/Night was not.

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Keywords Black/White Stroop, Cognitive development, Day/Night Stroop, Executive Function, Inhibitory control, Stroop task
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Journal Infant and Child Development
Vendetti, C. (Corrie), Kamawar, D, Podjarny, G. (Gal), & Astle, A. (Andrea). (2015). Measuring Preschoolers' Inhibitory Control Using the Black/White Stroop. Infant and Child Development, 24(6), 587–605. doi:10.1002/icd.1902