Using 136 cases of strategic decision‐making described by a number of variables drawn from the literature, three distinct types of decision‐making processes are found. These are termed sporadic, fluid and constricted processes. They are parsimonious characterizations of decision‐making processes which, given the variety of the 30 organizations from which the cases are drawn, should be generalizable to a wide range of contexts. Copyright

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Journal Journal of Management Studies
Cray, D, Mallory, G.R. (Geoffrey R.), Butler, R.J. (Richard J.), Hickson, D.J. (David J.), & Wilson, D.C. (David C.). (1988). SPORADIC, FLUID AND CONSTRICTED PROCESSES: THREE TYPES OF STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING IN ORGANIZATIONS1. Journal of Management Studies, 25(1), 13–39. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.1988.tb00020.x