We present results of a randomized controlled study that compared different types of affective support messages delivered by pedagogical agents. Results suggest that using a character that is empathic and emphasizes the malleability of intelligence and the importance of effort provides useful results in student learning, while reducing boredom and anxiety. Emphasizing success and failure ("That is correct/wrong") appears to be detrimental to learning and interest and promotes anxiety. We examine a variety of student affective, cognitive and engagement outcomes in an intelligent tutoring system for mathematics.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Affect, Empathy, Growth Mindset, Pedagogical Agents
Conference 24th ACM Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalisation, UMAP 2016
Citation
Arroyo, I. (Ivon), Schultz, S. (Sarah), Wixon, N. (Naomi), Muldner, K, Burleson, W. (Winslow), & Woolf, B.P. (Beverly P.). (2016). Addressing affective states with empathy and growth mindset. Presented at the 24th ACM Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalisation, UMAP 2016.